Latent fingerprint detection and visualization remains a challenge especially where problems of poor contrast, auto-fluorescent surfaces and patterned backgrounds are encountered. As a result there is an increasing interest in the development of simple, cost effective, rapid and yet accurate methods for latent fingerprint detection and recovery. Herein, this paper reports the synthesis of bright blue photoluminescent carbon dots via an eco-friendly and simple one-step microwave-assisted carbonization of potato peels biomass. The carbon dots were prepared in only 3 minutes and ground into powder and used without any further treatment. The as-prepared carbon dots were characterized using atomic force microscope, fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction with an average size of 1.0 nm. The optical properties of the as-prepared carbon dots were studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy and spectrofluorometer which established an excitation and emission wavelengths of 390 and 480 nm respectively. Owing to their strong solid state fluorescence, the as-prepared carbon dots powder was successfully used in latent fingerprint detection and imaging on porous and non-porous surfaces. Latent fingerprints were recovered with high resolution and excellent quality providing sufficient details for individual identification. These findings demonstrate that carbon dots derived from biomass have a great potential in latent fingerprint analysis for forensic applications.