The water quality of many reservoirs has shown significant decline as a result of mismanagement of upstream land use. Many such reservoirs are sources of potable water. Before distribution for consumption, water is usually treated to acceptable drinking water quality standards as determined by regulatory bodies. The treatment and distribution process requires energy. Poor raw water quality makes treatment more expensive because it requires technologically advanced methods for purification. While installation costs of these systems have gone down, the cost of energy continues to increase. It is of paramount importance therefore that the effect of raw water quality on treatment costs with respect to energy consumption be evaluated and optimized. One way of achieving this is by managing upstream land use activities to keep pollution to lowest possible levels. The objective of this paper is to compare and analyse existing work, first, on land use activities in upstream catchments, and second, the energy consumption in different water purification processes. Corresponding recommendations based on this study will be provided, focusing on the land use activities and its direct effect to water purification processes. The study is expected to motivate formulation of policies aimed at protecting catchments by managing upstream land use activities, and consequently reduce energy requirements in water purification plants.
|Published - 2015