Evaluation of reduction roasting and magnetic separation for upgrading Mn/Fe ratio of fine ferromanganese

Makhula Mpho, Bada Samson, Afolabi Ayo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Citations (Scopus)


Low grade ferromanganese tailing was subjected to different mineralogical techniques, reduction roasting and magnetic separation to establish whether commercially acceptable manganese qualities and high Mn/Fe ratio could be obtained, and also to determine the best processing route for beneficiating this ore. The main manganese mineral within the feed sample is birnessite, with minor amounts of pyrolusite and todorokite. Size by assay analysis conducted presented a result with a yield of about 35.75% and Mn grade of 27.63% to coarse (-3.35 + 1 mm) and yield of 20.24% and Mn grade of 27.71% to (-1.18 + 0.50 mm) fraction. Two-stage high induced magnetic separations at 16,000 and 11,000 G produces Mn grades with similar grade to that obtained from the ferromanganese feed sample. Reduction roasting followed by magnetic separation on -1.18 + 0.50 mm at 1000 G recovered 72.31% Mn with a grade of 58.44% Mn, 2.52% Fe and 3.29% Si at Mn/Fe ratio of 23.22. This study reveals the influence of roasting in converting the hematite and goethite to magnetite and the response of the roasted fraction to magnetic separation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)537-541
Number of pages5
JournalInternational Journal of Mining Science and Technology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Jul 1 2013

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geochemistry and Petrology
  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology


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