Recent Progress on Vaccines Produced in Transgenic Plants

Goabaone Gaobotse, Srividhya Venkataraman, Kamogelo M Mmereke, Khaled Moustafa, Kathleen Hefferon, Abdullah Makhzoum

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The development of vaccines from plants has been going on for over two decades now. Vaccine production in plants requires time and a lot of effort. Despite global efforts in plant-made vaccine development, there are still challenges that hinder the realization of the final objective of manufacturing approved and safe products. Despite delays in the commercialization of plant-made vaccines, there are some human vaccines that are in clinical trials. The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and its resultant disease, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), have reminded the global scientific community of the importance of vaccines. Plant-made vaccines could not be more important in tackling such unexpected pandemics as COVID-19. In this review, we explore current progress in the development of vaccines manufactured in transgenic plants for different human diseases over the past 5 years. However, we first explore the different host species and plant expression systems during recombinant protein production, including their shortcomings and benefits. Lastly, we address the optimization of existing plant-dependent vaccine production protocols that are aimed at improving the recovery and purification of these recombinant proteins.

Original languageEnglish
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 3 2022


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