Water and Wastewater Management in Local Government: Skills Needs and Development

Aoyi Ochieng, Maurice S. Onyango, Majozi Thokozani, Seid Esmail, Taile Leswifi, Rwanga Sophia, Kesi John

Research output: Book/ReportCommissioned report


Wastewater treatment has experienced many challenges in the recent years. On the one hand this
has been due to the stringent environmental laws governing discharge limits, and on the other hand it is due to the emerging contaminants that do not lend themselves to the conventional treatment methods. The response to these challenges has been an effort to develop more robust but low-cost treatment methods. To obtain an optimal balance between cost and robustness, a lot of scientific and engineering work needs to be done to exploit the competencies at the interface of the relevant disciplines. In this regard, there are several approaches that have been employed in recently, of
which there are two main ones. The first one is the integration of conventional methods (biodegradation) with advanced ones (advanced oxidation processes). The other one is the process intensification. Previous research has shown that integrating biological process with heterogeneous photocatalysis improves the performance of anaerobic digesters (AD). Further, the performance of the integrated systems can be improved through reactor choice and process intensification, in which individual reactors are optimized. Fluidized bed reactors (FBR) are of special interest due to the fact that they have high performance for multiphase operations such as heterogeneous photocatalytic
degradation of biorecalcitrant wastewater.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages127
Publication statusPublished - 2015


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